Propaganda Due (P2), Licio Gelli, Grande Oriente d’Italia (Grand Orient, Italy)
If you have studied the history of deep state intrigue, Gladio and stay-behind networks during the cold war, occasionally you may have come across a fleeting mention of someone named Frank Gigliotti. In Philip Willan’s Puppetmasters, for example, Gigliotti is described as a “former OSS and then CIA agent” who played a key role in the US negations to return control to the Grand Orient masons their former headquarters in Palazzo Giustiniani, Rome (57). “Frank Gigliotti of the US Masonic Lodge,” Daniele Ganser asserts in NATO’s Secret Armies, “personally recruited Gelli and instructed him to set up an anti-Communist parallel government in Italy in close cooperation with the CIA station in Rome” (73). In Willan’s book as well, Gigliotti is mentioned in a paragraph that begins with Gelli’s initiation into grand orient masonry.
Gelli, of course, refers to Licio Gelli, the Venerable Master of the Propaganda Due (P2) secret masonic lodge which recruited members with senior positions in the intelligence apparatus, the military, judiciary, parliament, media, banking and high finance. P2 operated like a state within a state, and Gelli as a self-proclaimed puppet master. The discovery, in 1981, of an official list of nearly a thousand members, including “four cabinet ministers, three under-secretaries and thirty-eight parliamentarians,” precipitated a collapse of the government (Willan 2002: 49). In subsequent government inquiries, Gelli and P2 were linked to the downfall of Banco Ambrosiano; Operation Gladio and the Strategy of Tension; the Bologna massacre; far-right/fascist groups such as Ordine Nuovo and Stefano Delle Chiaie’s Italian Social Movement; the Borghese coup; the Rosa dei Venti (Compass Rose) conspiracy; kidnapping, murder and assassination.
The parliamentary commission of inquiry investigating P2 specifically mentions Frank Gigliotti, his OSS/CIA/US Scottish Rite/Grand Orient ties, and draws attention to the conspicuous appearance of Licio Gelli once Gigliotti leaves the scene.
This seemingly obscure mason from the US was meddling in grand orient masonic affairs, on behalf of his masonic brethren as well as the US government, and was linked to the rise of Gelli and his ascendancy to the leadership of P2. Who was this man? What was the trajectory of his career?
— Terry Melanson, “Frank Gigliotti: Minister, Freemason, OSS and CIA“
I would like a detailed description of Licio Gelli, P2, Propaganda Due and the Years of Lead in Italy. Thank you in advance.
Certainly! Here’s a detailed description of Licio Gelli, P2 (Propaganda Due), and the Years of Lead in Italy:
Licio Gelli was an Italian financier, businessman, and right-wing extremist who played a significant role in Italian politics during the 20th century. He was born on April 21, 1919, in Pistoia, Italy, and died on December 15, 2015, in Arezzo, Italy. Gelli is primarily known for his involvement with a secret and illegal Masonic lodge called Propaganda Due (P2).
P2 (Propaganda Due):
Propaganda Due, often abbreviated as P2, was a clandestine Masonic lodge in Italy. It was founded in 1877 as a legitimate lodge but was later shut down by the Italian government due to concerns over its political activities. However, Licio Gelli revived P2 in the 1960s and turned it into a secret and illegal organization with a shadowy agenda.
P2 operated as a parallel state within the Italian state, exerting influence in various sectors, including politics, finance, the military, and the media. The lodge had influential members from different walks of life, such as politicians, military officials, intelligence officers, businesspeople, and journalists. The membership was estimated to have reached around 1,000 individuals.
P2 became notorious for its involvement in illegal activities, including political manipulation, corruption, and subversion of democratic institutions. The lodge was implicated in several scandals, including the collapse of the Vatican-affiliated Banco Ambrosiano in 1982, in which P2 member Roberto Calvi was found dead under mysterious circumstances.
The Years of Lead in Italy:
The Years of Lead (Anni di Piombo) refers to a period of social and political turmoil in Italy during the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s. The term “Years of Lead” was coined due to the extensive use of firearms and bombings by extremist groups on both the left and the right of the political spectrum.
During this period, Italy experienced a wave of political violence, including bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, and armed confrontations between various extremist groups and state authorities. The conflict primarily involved left-wing militant organizations, such as the Red Brigades (Brigate Rosse), and right-wing extremist groups, such as the neo-fascist group Ordine Nuovo.
The political violence in Italy was rooted in various factors, including ideological polarization, social unrest, labor disputes, student protests, and the global wave of radicalism during the 1960s and 1970s. It also had connections to the Cold War context, with fears of communist influence and the rise of far-right extremism.
The Italian government responded to the violence with a series of emergency measures, including the deployment of the military and the implementation of strict anti-terrorism laws. Despite these measures, the Years of Lead witnessed numerous high-profile attacks, including the kidnapping and murder of former Prime Minister Aldo Moro by the Red Brigades in 1978.
The period of political violence gradually subsided in the 1980s, as law enforcement agencies intensified their efforts to dismantle extremist groups and as political and social dynamics in Italy evolved. However, the scars left by the Years of Lead continue to influence Italian society and politics to some extent.
Overall, the involvement of Licio Gelli and P2 during the Years of Lead in Italy represented a dark chapter in the country’s history, characterized by illicit activities, political manipulation, and widespread violence.