Tagged: Invisible Government

P2 Commission; what consequences of a cryptocracy

If democracy is a system of rules and procedures which define the parameters within which political action can take place, what happens when alongside this system there is another one whose rules are mysterious, its procedures unknown, its power immense and which is able to protect itself against the formal institutions of democracy by a wall of secrecy?

— Quoting the Anselmi Commission (which investigated P2): Daniele Ganser, “The ‘Propaganda Due’ Masonic Lodge and the CIA in Italy's First Republic,” in Wilson, Eric and Tim Lindsey (eds), Government of the Shadows: Parapolitics and Criminal Sovereignty (2009), p. 256


Invisible Government

[A] dual state exists when a part of the constitutional elite, in order to preserve the current system [of power], forms a hidden power, with a principle of legitimation of its own — outside and in contra-position to that of the formal constitution — in order to permanently condition the political system through illegal methods, without going so far as to subvert the formal one, which partly maintains its efficacy.

— Rosella Dossi, “Italy’s Invisible Government” (CERC Working Papers Series, 2001), p. 6, citing/translating Cucchiarelli, P. and Giannulli, A. (1997), Lo Stato parallelo. L’Italia “oscura” nei documenti e nelle relazioni della Commissione Stragi, p. 18