The war conspirators included a Standard Oil attorney, Henry L. Stimson (Skull & Bones), who was a Thomas Lamont ally, and partner with Elihu Root in a law firm on Wall Street, the nucleus of the powerful American Establishment. Following Washington's proverbial revolving door collusion strategy between corporate oligarchies and government, Stimson held the following strategic positions: civilian Secretary of War under fellow Skull and Bonesman Taft (1908-1912), Governor General of the Philippines (1926-1928), Secretary of State under Hoover (1929-1933) and civilian Secretary of War under Roosevelt and Truman (1940- 1946), where he managed the drafting and training of 12 million soldiers and airmen, and directed the purchase of 30 percent of the nations industrial output to the battlefield. He was responsible for the internment and subsequent property seizure of thousands of Japanese-American citizens.
Stimson contrived the economic provocations directed at Japan to maneuver them into firing the first shot, also facilitated by Japan-based Ambassador Joseph Grew and many well-place members of the Institute of Pacific Relations who urged Japan's willing war-hawk leaders to respond. Stimson supervised General Leslie Groves, head of the Manhattan Project, developers of the atomic bomb. Hollister Bundy (Skull & Bones) was Stimson´s special assistant at the Pentagon for the Manhattan Project. His two sons, William and McGeorge Bundy, also members of Skull and Bones, followed in their father's global government footprints. Later, Stimson, in complete control of President Truman, (Roosevelt had died on April 12, 1945) would personally choose Hiroshima and Nagasaki as inexcusable, non-military targets for those bombs, a message to the world at the beginning of the Cold War, and an excuse for the massive military build-up to shrink the U.S. treasury. Stimson "took credit" for swaying Truman to drop "the bomb" on Japan.1
Against the initial concerns of Roosevelt and Churchill, Stimson would later insist on proper judicial proceedings against a minimal number of Germany's top war criminals. Stimson and the War Department outlined the original proposals for an International Tribunal, which Truman, the incoming president, obediently backed. The results of those proposals ultimately led to the Nuremberg Trials of 1945-46, which would affect the development of International Law, a means of establishing a world authority to ultimately supersede all national authorities.2
Prior to Pearl Harbor, Tokyo sent daily bomb-plots, cabled from its Honolulu consulate, to the attack fleet using JN-25 radio messages, a very old code. Roosevelt also received Japan's JN-25 messages. Yet, the U.S. government still refuses to release any of those JN-25 messages because it would reveal that both Roosevelt and Churchill monitored the Japanese attack fleet all the way to Pearl Harbor.3
According to testimony at the International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), Hirohito, dressed in full military uniform, also monitored all radio transmissions from Admiral Yamamoto's flagship during the night of December 7-8, 1941.4 Unfortunately, those who perished weren't privy to any information or warnings. After the war, Hirohito was portrayed as a peace lover who was kept completely ignorant of all warfare decisions and activities -- feigning ignorance or incompetence are oft-used political ploys.
Predictably, Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor impacted the American Pacific Fleet of 19 warships, which either sank or were severely damaged. Additionally, 340 naval and army aircraft were either destroyed or critically disabled. Fortuitously, all the newer ships previously stationed at Pearl Harbor had been sent to the Atlantic by Roosevelt. Only the old WWI junk was left in harbor. In his testimony to Congress, Admiral Bloch said: "The Japanese only destroyed a lot of old hardware. In a sense they did us a favor."5
History books omit details about the second Japanese assault against the U.S. in the Philippines. An additional victorious assault established Japan's dominance and facilitated their plundering conquest of Southeast Asia, the scheme that the Japanese oligarchy and the American-friendly British bankers planned in 1902 when Japan agreed to be "the Crown's policeman in Asia."6
The Philippine Department Air Force, under General Douglas MacArthur's direct command, was organized on September 20, 1941. Despite numerous warnings, the allies claimed that Japan would not attack the Philippines until the spring of 1942. So in preparation for that possible attack, Army Chief of Staff George C. Marshall (1939 to 1945) dispatched aircraft to the Philippines, 500 miles from the Japanese airbases on Formosa.
MacArthur's headquarters received word of the Pearl Harbor attack at 2:30 a.m. on December 8, 1941 and should have been prepared and vigilant. MacArthur radar-tracked the progress of Japanese planes as they approached the Philippines. He acknowledged them at 140, 100, 80, 60, all the way down to 20 miles away from their target. Then he gave an order to respond. It was, of course, too late.7 Are repetitive belated military responses evidence of incompetence, or collusion? Similarly, on 9/11, Flight 77, without air traffic control communication and with its transponder deliberately turned off, flew unimpeded towards a Washington "no fly" zone for 45 minutes without a single defensive maneuver - after the towers had been hit. V. P. Dick Cheney was asked repeatedly by a young man if the (stand-down) order still stood as a plane ominously approached the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, as given in Norman Mineta's testimony before the 9/11 Commission cover-up.
The attack on the Philippines occurred ten hours after the Pearl Harbor attack - on December 8, 1941 at 12:35 p.m. when 196 Japanese Navy bombers struck the U.S. air bases at Clark and Iba Fields, and effectively crippled the Far East Air Force (FEAF) of the U.S. Army Air Force, consisting of 35 Boeing four-engine B-17 bombers and 91 Warhawk fighters, the largest force outside of the U.S. Clark Field also lost the use of its radar units.8
MacArthur's reaction to his entire air force being destroyed was an anomaly to say the least. He sequestered himself in his room and refused to talk with anyone, even Maj. Gen. Lewis H. Brereton, the air commander. This might be akin to flying aimlessly around the country, as Bush did on 9/11. Additionally, MacArthur had refused to attack Japan's airbases on Formosa despite orders from someone apparently out-of-the-loop at the War Department. Rather, he had given conflicting orders that guaranteed that the planes would remain on the ground all morning. After the Japanese air strike, Admiral Thomas Hart withdrew his defensive Asiatic Fleet, except for its non-combat submarines.
"Strategically, the destruction of half of all U.S. heavy bombers in the world was more important than naval damage in Pearl Harbor. Either MacArthur had committed the greatest blunder in military history or he was under orders to allow his forces to be destroyed. If it were the greatest blunder in history, it is remarkable that he escaped any reprimand, kept his command and got his fourth star and Congressional Medal of Honor shortly afterwards. Author Gordon W. Prange argued, 'How could the President ensure a successful Japanese attack unless he confided in the commanders and persuaded them to allow the enemy to proceed unhindered?'"9
According to the pre-war Plan Orange, utilized on December 24, MacArthur was to use five delaying positions in Central Luzon while some of his forces, military headquarters and the Philippine government withdrew to Bataan. Accordingly, he sent General Parker of the South Luzon Force to Bataan to prepare defensive positions. MacArthur's remaining forces would oppose them on the beach and then depart for Bataan and await reinforcement. Plan Orange, though prepared years before, had been reviewed and left unchanged. The land invasion occurred on December 22, 1941, two weeks after Pearl Harbor.10 On Christmas Eve 1941, General MacArthur, his staff, Quezon and Osmeña escaped from Manila to Malinta Tunnel on the fortified island of Corregidor which became the seat of government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. The Philippine gold reserves from the treasury and the gold bullion from the Benguet mines were transferred to Malinta Tunnel, Corregidor's secure complex.
On January 2, 1942 the Japanese entered Manila. Major General Jonathan Wainwright's men could have prevented General Homma Masaharu from advancing to Manila but their defective World War I Enfield rifles failed and they fled. Filipino and U.S. forces outnumbered the Japanese invaders by three to two. But they were poorly trained and equipped. The U.S. Had planned to increase armaments but only 20% of their artillery requirements were met. To save Manila from utter destruction, it was declared an open city. Wainwright, according to Plan Orange, withdrew to Bataan. Ultimately, there would be over 100,000 refugees on Bataan. Unfortunately, MacArthur had failed to make adequate logistical preparations in Bataan. Most of the supplies had been left on the beaches and consequently were lost - possibly to opportunists who would soon make a fortune in the black market. On Bataan, the 26th Cavalry eventually had to shoot and eat their horses.11
General MacArthur always relied on staff officers and stayed as far away from the enemy as possible. On January 9, 1942, MacArthur boarded a PT boat and made his first and only visit back to the peninsula.12 U.S. troop reinforcements and supplies, as per Plan Orange, were on their way across the Pacific but were recalled by Roosevelt. Purportedly, the need for food and men in Europe was more important than the needs in the Philippines. Poor planning or poor judgment? This was a death knell for troops who had been fighting for nine long weeks.
The Filipinos took advantage of the chaos in Manila and were killing each other - settling old scores and eliminating enemies. Rape, robbery and looting were widespread. Ferdinand Marcos, who was serving on the U.S. side, took this opportunity to eliminate the man who had testified against him when Marcos had murdered his stepfather's political opponent. Marcos had been exonerated by his biological father, Judge Chua, and thereby escaped incarceration; the same judge, known as Marcos' godfather, also paid his way through law school.13 The economy of Luzon, the largest island, was a disaster. Crops were seized; people were starving. Gangs roamed the streets. Currency was worthless and people paid gemstones or gold for whatever food they could find on the opportunistic black market, a devious way of acquiring any remaining valuables from desperate people. Homes, factories and warehouses were abandoned.14
On March 11, 1942, MacArthur, his inner circle, Quezon and Osmeña left Corregidor, the island in the entrance of the Philippines' Manila Bay, the best natural harbor in the Far East for the Del Monte pineapple plantation in Mindanao, and left via its airstrip for Australia. Quezon then went to the U.S. where he died. Vice President Osmeña became president in exile. For ballast, MacArthur had 20 tons of gold loaded on the U.S. submarine that was leaving for Australia where Roosevelt had assigned him Supreme Allied Commander South West Pacific Area. It is unknown whether this gold was the property of the Philippine government or private property. Manuel Roxas, the man who would later become president, remained in the Philippines to sink the remaining gold reserves in Manila Bay to prevent the Japanese from seizing it.15
MacArthur left behind him a huge military fiasco, vowing to return. The 20,000 exhausted soldiers remaining in the Philippines were starving on a third of a ration per day. Wainwright stayed with the troops and took control on March 23, 1942. As many as 8,000 Filipino and 2,000 Americans perished from malaria, starvation, beatings and executions during the infamous Bataan Death March to Camp O'Donnell.16
Instead of a reprimand, and because of a good public relations staff, MacArthur played the hero and was given the Medal of Honor because Roosevelt needed a war hero to win public support for the war. Predictably, five months after Pearl Harbor, Japan dominated all of Southeast Asia with its abundant resources. Against all U.S. military regulations, and concealed until 1979, MacArthur accepted a half million dollars from President Manuel L. Quezon for defending the Philippines.17 Apparently, even ineffectual efforts have their rewards. Arthur MacArthur, Jr. and Douglas MacArthur were the first father and son to ever be awarded a Medal of Honor.
In October 1944, a Navy and Army Court deliberated possible foreknowledge and culpability surrounding the Pearl Harbor attack. Between November 27 and December 6, 1941, officials in the State, War and Navy Departments had received numerous pieces of information giving specific information about the imminent Japanese attack. The courts found Washington guilty of not acting on information that caused the avoidable slaughter of over 2400 individuals. When the verdict was revealed, Army Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall, guilty as charged, offered his resignation which of course was rejected by the powers that be. The verdict apparently was overshadowed by other newsworthy issues. Marshall asserted, under oath, that he considered loyalty to his chief (under the direction of the international bankers) more imperative than loyalty to his country.18
Marshall, a member of the secretive pro-war Pilgrim Society, would continue to serve the Power Elite as Secretary of State from January 21, 1947 to January 20, 1949, during which time he and Under Secretary of State, Dean Acheson (1945-1947; CFR, Pilgrim Society, Scroll and Key Society), promoted the U.S. taxpayer-financed Marshall Plan to Aid Europe, devised by the Committee for Economic Development (CED), a Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) economic counterpart. Industrial attorney/government official Henry Stimson sat on the executive board of the CED. The Marshall Plan would effectively transfer nearly $100 billion in current dollars to Europe under humanitarian claims - its stated purpose was to provide American jobs, feed the hungry, blah, blah, blah. It would be administered by banker/government official, Averill Harriman (CFR, Pilgrim Society, and Skull & Bones).19
Marshall's misplaced, self-serving loyalty is apparently still shared today by numerous individuals who persistently demonstrate incompetence or faulty judgment and/or intelligence, all at the taxpayer's expense.
Deanna Spingola has been a quilt designer and is the author of two books. She has traveled extensively teaching and lecturing on her unique methods. She has always been an avid reader of non-fiction works designed to educate rather than entertain. She is active in family history research and lectures on that topic. Currently she is the director of the local Family History Center. She has a great interest in politics and the direction of current government policies, particularly as they relate to the Constitution. Deanna's Web Site
PERFECTIBILISTS: The 18th Century Bavarian Order of the Illuminati, by Terry Melanson
The Ascendancy of the Scientific Dictatorship, by Paul & Phillip Collins
Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism, by Abbe Barruel
Fire in the Minds of Men: Origins of the Revolutionary Faith, by James H. Billington
America's Secret Establishment: An Introduction to the Order of Skull & Bones, by Antony C. Sutton